Monera: Kingdom of Bacteria and Viruses (volume 1) (a nosode book!) by FRANS VERMEULEN
This book is THE essential text of learning about homeopathic NOSODES (medicines made from diseases tissue). Over 100 remedies are discussed, and this book is 848 (!) pages.
“Monera” carries the Vermeulen signature of enlightenment and ground-breaking enquiry.
Frans Vermeulen’s new book is the first of a series called Spectrum. Over the coming five years, Frans will visit all of the various Kingdoms of remedies, starting with the smallest single-celled organisms, and working up to the more complex organisms of the Animal Kingdom. He will chart a path through the periodic table, the plants, the creatures of earth air and water, the manmade and the imponderable and unclassifiable – something from each of these areas is represented in our material medica.
His aim is to discover and to group into one series of books the most comprehensively useful information possible for homeopaths. The information has been sourced in many ways; through website searches, encyclopaedias; cases from homeopaths all around the world; provings old and new, classical and crazy; old texts, homeopathic gems and masters; lectures; libraries, [selected unpublished articles found in Pierre Schmidt’s library will get their first airing]. Some of the material has never before been available in English. Sources are referenced. Each volume of the series has taken over a year to research and finalize.
You are asked to view the information with an open mind. For instance, a decision was made to include a few meditative provings, (viewed by some as contentious), in order to disseminate the information. Where the information involved in the meditative provings follows the same theme of the classical proving, or sheds light on a remedy, it has been included. However, as all the information is referenced, you are free to make your own choice of reading. The ideas expressed in the material are not necessarily those of the author. What to include and what to exclude is the perennial problem for the material medica synthesizer. So these books contain a vast amount of information, which can only enrich you, and ultimately the lives of your patients.
Inside the front cover is a comprehensive ‘map’ showing the taxonomy of Bacteria. A matching map traces the taxonomy of the Viruses inside the back cover. By this means, and the device of running headings, you can navigate your way around the book and the complex relationships of bacteria and of viruses. The connection between botulism and tetanus becomes obvious, as does the close relationship of Weil’s disease to Borreliosis.
The book contains Classification of all the bacteria and viruses that have made their way into the homeopathic pharmacopoeia. The history of disease, vaccines, medicine and religion is charted here. We see how disease and religion walk hand in glove; how the evolution of man mirrors that of the microbe. We see the myths attendant on disease – and the unbelievable power of the pathogen. Our language is riddled with the language of disease – this is shown in the many anecdotes and myths that lighten and balance the dry and sometimes statistical medical and scientific language.
There is often more than one remedy per bacteria (for example one remedy made from the disease product and another from the vaccine). The history and genealogy of these makes fascinating reading, and Vermeulen has implemented his sleuthing skills to unravel many irregularities.
As in Vermeulen’s previous book, “Prisma,” there is a lot here to read and to ingest. The material answers some questions, but raises many much deeper questions about the roots and philosophy of disease. Controversial matter is made available, and Vermeulen, seldom commenting, offers websites for further searches. Some of the language is impenetrable, old fashioned, and some is new because this book charts the history of the microscopic world of the Monera from four billion years ago to the present – and that needs a new language. The glossary helps out by elucidating obscure language from many “-ologies and -opathies”!
What is subtly distilled is the essence of bacterial and virus ‘sensation’. These groups are coming to light as a difficult and dysfunctional family. There are the glimpses of brilliance and egocentricity that we associate with particular remedies -Tuberculinum and Syphilinum. And we see in a flash familiar fingerprints in the Lyme nosode and Brucella melitensis pictures. We understand that bacterial life exists at the extremes, creating both genius and mind-numbing dullness; euphoria and prostration; dehydration and inundation.
This is a book that will make you question your very DNA. And of course it provides the reference tool you seek if you work in the realm of Miasmatic prescribing, or Family and Sensation. It is an informative tool regardless of which methodology you use to effect your prescription.
Naming of Parts xxxi
Orderly systems xxxi
Classification in homeopathy xxxii
The kingdoms xxxii
The necessity of classification and categorisation xxxiii
Homeopathic remedy abbreviations xxxiii
Why more remedies? xxxiv
Without going outside, you may know the whole world… xxxv
Bacterial benefits xxxviii
Hubris versus humus xxxvi
Nosodes and vaccines xxxvii
The dose makes the poison xxxviii
Many questions, different answers xxxix
Building blocks xxxix
Bacterial nomenclature xl
Classification kingdom Monera xlii
Biology of Bacteria 1
Group Alpha Proteobacteria8
I. Order Rhizobiales9IA. Family Brucellaceae9 Brucella melitensis9 Features9 Brucellosis10 Prevalence10 Clinical manifestations10 Key symptoms12 Tuberculosis13 Worldwide burden of brucellosis14 Biological warfare15 Neurobrucellosis15 Materia Medica Brucella melitensis16 Clinical characteristics17 Symptoms17 Cases22
II. Order Rhodospirillales25
IIA. Family Acetobacteriaceae25 Acetobacter xylinus25 Features25 Kombucha25 First encounter26 Preservation28 Benefits and risks29 Comparison with Aceticum acidum32
III. Order Rickettsiales36
IIIA. Family Rickettsiaceae36 Rickettsia36 Rickettsiosis36 Epidemic typhus39 Symptoms of typhus fever40 Materia Medica Typhus nosode41 Sources41 An emerging picture41
Group Beta Proteobacteria44I. Order Burkholderiales45IA. Family Alcaligenaceae45 Alcaligenes faecalis45 Features45 Materia Medica Faecalis45 Bordetella pertussis47 Features47 Clinical features47 Crowd versus individual48 Materia Medica Pertussis vaccine51 Sources51 Hypoglycaemia52 Allergies52 Materia Medica Pertussinum55 Sources55 Symptoms55 Clinical pathogenesis55 Cases57
IB. Family Burkholderiaceae60 Burkholderia mallei60 Features60 Clinical features61 Materia Medica Hippozaeninum62 Sources62 Affinities62 Melting away62 Destruction62 Nasal catarrh62 Additional symptoms63 Case67
II. Order Neisseriales68IIA. Family Neisseriaceae68 Genus Neisseria68 Neisseria gonorrhoeae69 Features69 Disseminated gonococcal infection69 Materia Medica Medorrhinum70 Sources70 Symptoms71 Cases75 Materia Medica Medorrhinum Americana80 Sources80 Symptoms81Neisseria meningitidis86 Features86 Meningitis86 Materia Medica Meningococcinum88 Indications88 Neisseria subflava89 Features89 Clinical picture89 Materia Medica Flavus90 Sources90 Symptoms90 Neisseria catarrhalis / Neisseria mucosa92 Sources92 Materia Medica Sycotic Compound94 Symptoms94 Case99
Group Gamma Proteobacteria101I. Order Enterobacteriales102IA. Family Enterobacteriaceae102 Family features102 Bowel nosodes103 Bacillus No. 10 – Materia Medica106 Sources106 Symptoms107 Bacillus No. 7108 Origins and names108 Citrobacter freundii108 Enterobacter cloacae109 Hafnia alvei109 Materia Medica Bacillus No. 7109 Sources109 Symptoms109 Escherichia coli112 Features112 Clinical features113 Materia Medica Colibacillinum117 Sources117 Symptoms117 Materia Medica Serum Anti-colibaccilum122 Sources122 Symptoms123 Escherichia coli mutabile124 Mutations124 Materia Medica Mutabile125 Sources125 Symptoms125 Associated remedies125 Cases125 Klebsiella pneumoniae128 Features128 FriedlSnder128 Materia Medica Mucotoxinum129 Sources129 Symptoms129 Morganella morganii130 Features130 Fish poisoning130 Materia Medica Morgan pure131 Sources131 Synopsis132 Symptoms134 Cases138 Materia Medica Morgan gaertner141 Sources141 Symptoms141 Proteus [vulgaris & mirabilis]144 Features144 Proteus – the shape-shifter145 Materia Medica Proteus148 Sources148 Symptoms148 Cases158 More cases162 Salmonella169 Genus169 Salmonella enteritidis171 Features171 Materia Medica Bacillus Gaertner171 Sources171 Symptoms172 Cases176 Salmonella paratyphi184 Features184 Materia Medica Paratyphoidinum B184 Sources184 Symptoms184 Salmonella typhi186 Features186 Typhoid fever186 Materia Medica Eberthinum189 Sources189 Symptoms189 Cases190 Shigella dysenteriae192 Features192 Shigellosis192 Materia Medica Dysenteriae Co.195 Sources195 Symptoms195 Cases202 Yersinia204 Genus204 Yersiniosis204 Yersinia enterocolitica204 Yersinia pseudotuberculosis206 Yersinia pestis208 Features208 Black Death208 Clinical manifestations208 The plague throughout history209 Social breakdown211 The whip of God211 Absolution and abandonment213 Dance of Death214 Changing times217 Materia Medica Pestinum218 Sources218 Symptoms219 Tuberculinic miasm221 Materia Medica Serum Yersiniae221 Sources221 Indications222
II. Order Pasteurellales224IIA. Family Pasteurellaceae224 Haemophilus influenzae224 Features224 Hib vaccination225 Materia Medica Haemophilus influenzae B vaccinus226 Sources226 Symptoms226
III. Order Pseudomonadales228IIIA. Family Pseudomonadaceae228 Pseudomonas aeruginosa228 Features228 Clinical features229
IV. Order Vibrionales231IVA. Family Vibrionaceae231 Vibrio cholerae231 Features231 Cholera232 Patterns and carriers234 Miasmatic theories235 Koch’s Postulates236 Choleraic paranoia237 Materia Medica Choleratoxin238
Group Epsilon Proteobacteria240I.Order Campylobacterales241IA. Family Campylobacteraceae241 Campylobacter jejuni241 Features241 Campylobacteriosis242 Guillain-BarrT syndrome242 Homeopathy243
IB. Family Helicobacteraceae244 Helicobacter pylori244 Features244 Homeopathy245
PHYLUM SPIROCHAETAE247I. Order Spirochaetales248IA. Family Leptospiraceae248 Leptospira interrogans248 Features248 Leptospirosis249 Clinical features250 Materia Medica Leptospira251 Sources251 Symptoms251
IB. Family Spirochataceae252 Borrelia burgdorferi252 Features252 Lyme borreliosis254 The imitator’s new clothes255 Tick-stricken257 Syphilitic miasm259 Materia Medica Borrelia260 Sources260 Symptoms260 Treponema pallidum274 Features274 The good –275 and the bad276 Psora — or syphilis?279 Tracing the syphilitic miasm281 Locomotion283 The fine line between survival and destruction285 Stages of syphilis287 General paresis291 Materia Medica Syphilinum296 Sources296 Symptoms297 Cases303 Treponema pertenue311 Features311 Yaws311 Materia Medica Framboesinum314 Sources314 Differential diagnosis314
PHYLUM CYANOBACTERIA315I. Order Chroococcales317IA. Family Chroococcaceae317 Microcystis aeruginosa317 Harmful algal blooms317 Microcystin318 Materia Medica Microcystis aeruginosa319 Sources319 Symptoms319
II. Order Nostocales322IIA. Family Nostocaceae322 Anabaena flos-aqua322 Cyano-HABS322 Saxitoxin and brevetoxin323 Mussel poisoning325 Alzheimer’s disease and algal blooms327 Materia Medica Saxitoxinum329 Sources329 Symptoms329
III. Order Oscillatoriales332IIIA. Family Phormidaceae332IIIB. Family Pseudanabaenaceae332 Spirulina332 Microbial mats332 Food supplement333
DIVISION FIRMICUTES 336[Gram-positive and protein-walled bacteria]336PHYLUM ENDOSPORA336CLASS Bacilli338I. Order Bacillales338IA. Family Bacillaceae338 Bacillus anthracis338 Genus Bacillus338 Bacillus anthracis340 Anthrax341 The fifth and sixth plagues342 Materia Medica Anthracinum344 Sources344 Symptoms344 Cases347
IB. Family Listeriaceae349 Listeria monocytogenes349 Features349 Listeriosis349 Materia Medica Listeriosis nosode351 Sources351
IC. Family Staphylococcaceae352 Staphylococcus aureus352 Features352 Food poisoning353 Clinical manifestations355 Materia Medica Staphylococcinum356 Sources356 Symptoms356 Coccal co.359 Staphylotoxinum359
II. Order Lactobacillales360IIA. Family Enterococcaceae361 Enterococcus faecalis361 Features361 Aetiological factors362 Clinical features362 Materia Medica 363 Materia Medica Enterococcinum363 Sources363 Symptoms364 Materia Medica Strepto-enterococcinum365 Sources365 Symptoms365
IIB. Family Lactobacillaceae368 Lactobacillus acidophilus368 Features genus Lactobacillus368 Lactic acid368 Benefits of lactobacilli369 Homeopathy370 Two sour lacs370 Lactose and lactic acid372
IIC. Family Streptococcaceae374 Streptococcus pneumoniae374 Features374 Clinical manifestations374 Meningitis379 Pneumococcal vaccines380 Materia Medica Pneumococcinum381 Sources381 Aetiological factors381 Symptoms382 Cases384
Streptococcus pyogenes387 Features387 Clinical manifestations388 Sequelae389 Chorea389 Epidemiology391 Other streptococci392 Group A392 Group B392 Group C – Viridans392 Tumours and streptococci394 Coley’s toxins394 Use and effects395 Adverse effects396 Current use397 Immunotherapy397 Tumour necrosis factor397 Endotoxins and Serratia399 Therapeutics400 Streptokinase400 Adverse reactions401 Scarlet fever402 Scarlatina402 Scarlet fever, antibiotics, streptococcal resistance and the enforcement of health402 Materia Medica Scarlatinum403 Sources403 Aetiological factors403 Clinical pathogenesis403 Sequelae of scarlet fever404 Cases404 Materia Medica Streptococcinum409 Sources409 Aetiological factors409 Symptoms 410 Cases413
CLASS Clostridia417I. Order Clostridiales417IA. Family Clostridiaceae417 Clostridium417 Features417 Clostridium botulinum419 Features419 Categories of botulism420 Food-borne botulism422 From bioweapon to biodrug to cosmetic craze425 Adverse effects427 Materia Medica Botulinum429 Sources429 Indications429 Individual symptoms430 Proving Symptoms432 Themes432 Generals435 Locals437 Cases439 Clostridium difficile441 Features441 Clinical manifestations441 Clostridium perfringens442 Features442 Clinical manifestations442 Clostridium tetani444 Features444 Tetanus444 Clinical forms444 Generalised tetanus445 Wounds447 Fluctuation448 Biting448 Loganiaceae449 Materia Medica Tetanotoxinum449 Sources449 Symptoms449 Materia Medica Tetanus vaccinus450 Sources450 Tetany450 Immunisation451 Adverse effects452
PHYLUM PIRELLULAE455I. Order Chlamydiales456IA. Family Chlamydiaceae456 Chlamydia trachomatis456 Features456 Subgroups457 Chlamydia trachomatis infections457 Trachoma457 Non-gonococcal urethritis458 Lymphogranuloma459 Neonatal459 Other chlamydias460 Materia Medica Chlamydia trachomatis461 Sources461 Clinical experience462 Symptoms462 Case466
PHYLUM ACTINOBACTERIA469I. Order Actinomycetales471IA. Family Actinomycetaceae471 Actinomyces israelii471 Features471 Actinomycosis472IB. Family Corynebacteriaceae474 Corynebacterium diphtheriae474 Features474 Clinical features475 Immunisation477 Materia Medica Diphtherinum479 Sources479 Applications480 Symptoms480 Cases481 Materia Medica Diphtherotoxinum486 Indications486 Symptoms487 Diphtheria, Tetanus, Pertussis [DTP] vaccine488 History488 Post-vaccination syndromes489 Materia Medica DTP vaccine489 Sources489 Symptoms490 Behaviour and personality changes495 Cases496
IC. Family Micromonosporaceae498 Micromonospora purpurea498 Materia Medica Gentamicinum498 The drug498 Rare adverse effects499
ID. Family Mycobacteriaceae501 Mycobacterium avium501 Features501 Mycobacterium avium complex502 Materia Medica Tuberculinum avis503 Sources503 Symptoms503 Generals505 Locals505 Cases505 Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis510 Features510 Crohn’s disease511 Crohn’s disease and intestinal tuberculosis514 Cervical lymphadenitis followed by terminal ileitis516 Johne’s disease518 Materia Medica Johneinum519 Sources519 Symptoms519 Mycobacterium bovis525 Features525 Milk-borne transmission525 Differentiating the Tuberculinums526 Materia Medica Tuberculinum bovinum Kent527 Sources527 Tubercular meningitis528 Sequelae531 Cases532 Bacillus Calmette-GuTrin535 History535 BCG535 BCG and pertussis537 Cancer treatment538 Puberty539 Materia Medica Vaccin attTnuT biliT540 Sources540 Symptoms540 Mycobacterium leprae543 Features543 Clinical manifestations544 Leprosy and TB546 Holy and sinful547 The stigma of sin549 Rejection from normality551 Materia Medica Leprominium554 Sources554 Symptoms555 Comparisons560 Mycobacterium tuberculosis562 Features562 Taming the beasts563 Clinical manifestations565 Hope and optimism566 Voyages for health568 Seeking fortune571 Unleashed yearnings573 A perplexing plethora of preparations575 Keynotes578 Materia Medica Bacillinum579 Sources579 Purulence579 Proving Clarke581 Proving Boocock581 Proving Sankaran582 Proving Swan584 Symptoms584 Cases585 Materia Medica Tuberculinum Denys589 Sources589 Symptoms589 Materia Medica Tuberculinum Koch591 Sources591 Koch’s tuberculin591 Effects of tuberculin injections592 Symptoms593 Difference with Bacillinum595 Tuberculinum Marmorek596 Sources596 History596 Type596 Symptoms597 Tuberculinum residuum Koch598 History598 Sources599 Symptoms599 Tuberculinum Rosenbach601 Sources601 Tuberculinum Spengler601 History601 Sources601 Indications602
IE. Family Nocardiaceae603 Nocardia asteroides603 Features603 Nocardiosis604
IF. Family Streptomycetaceae606 Genus Streptomyces606 Antibiotics606 Streptomyces albus607 Drug: Salinomycin607 Uses607 Adverse effects608 Streptomyces ambofaciens608 Drug: Spiramycin [Rovamycine]608 Uses608 Adverse effects609 Streptomyces aureofaciens609 Drug: Chlortetracycline [Aureomycin]609 History609 Uses609 Adverse effects609 Streptomyces caespitosus610 Drug: Mitomycin610 Uses610 Adverse effects610 Streptomyces erythreus611 Drug: Erythromycin611 Uses611 Adverse effects611 Streptomyces fradiae611 Drug: Neomycin611 History611 Uses611 Adverse effects611 Streptomyces garyphalus612 Drug: Cycloserine612 History612 Uses612 Adverse effects612 Streptomyces griseus612 Drug: Streptomycin612 History612 Uses612 Adverse effects613 Materia Medica Streptomycinum sulphatum615 Sources615 Symptoms615 Streptomyces nodosus616 Drug: Amphotericin B.616 History617 Uses617 Adverse effects617 Streptomyces noursei617 Drug: Nystatin617 Uses617 Adverse reactions617 Streptomyces peucetius var. caesius618 Drug: Doxorubicin618 Uses618 Adverse effects618 Streptomyces venezuelae618 Drug: Chloramphenicol [Chloromycetin]618 History618 Uses618 Adverse effects619 Materia Medica Chloramphenicolum619 Sources619 Symptoms619
PART 2: VIRUSES
Kingdom’ Viruses626Classification and taxonomy viruses628
DNA VIRUSES 633
CLASS I – DOUBLE STRANDED DNA 633a. double stranded DNA; naked; polyhedral capsid633Adenoviridae633 General633 Homeopathy634Papillomaviridae634 General634 Homeopathy634b. double stranded; circular DNA; enveloped; complex635
Poxviridae635 Plenty of pox635 Inoculation, scarification, variolation636 Vaccination or equination?637 Horse-grease638 Malandrinum640 Materia Medica Malandrinum641 Sources641 Clinical manifestations of horse-grease infection641 Symptoms642 Case646 Materia Medica Vaccininum647 Cowpox647 Sources647 Symptoms648 Variola – Smallpox650 Clinical manifestations of smallpox650 Adverse effects of smallpox vaccination652 Materia Medica Variolinum654 Sources654 Symptoms657 Common symptoms of Variolinum, Vaccininum and Malandrinum661 Cases662c. double stranded DNA; enveloped; polyhedral capsid664
Herpesviridae664 General664 Alphaherpesvirinae665 HHV 1 & 2 – Herpes simplex665 Herpes simplex nosode665 HHV-3 – Varicella-zoster virus665 Varicella nosode666 Herpes zoster666 Herpes zoster nosode667 Betaherpesvirinae667 HHV-5 – Cytomegalovirus667 Cytomegalie nosode668 HHV-6 – Roseolovirus668 Herpes virus type 6 nosode669 Gammaherpesvirinae669 HHV-4 – Epstein-Barr virus – Infectious mononucleosis669 Homeopathy670
d. double stranded DNA; with a RNA intermediatein replication671
Hepadnaviridae671 Hepatitis B671 Hepatitis B vaccine672 Homeopathy672
CLASS IV – POSITIVE SINGLE STRANDED RNA 674a. positive single stranded RNA; naked; polyhedral capsid674Picornaviridae674 General674 Genus Enterovirus675 Enteroviruses – general675 Coxsackieviruses675 Homeopathy675 Poliovirus675 Polio and carbohydrates678 Susceptibility to polio679 Homeopathy and post-polio syndrome680 Key symptoms684 Proving polio nosode684 Sources684 Symptoms685 Genus Hepatovirus 686 Hepatitis A686 Homeopathy686 Genus Rhinovirus686 Common colds686
b. positive single stranded RNA; enveloped; polyhedral capsid687
Coronaviridae687 General687 Homeopathy687Flaviviridae688 General688 Dengue fever688 Yellow fever688 Hepatitis C689 Homeopathy689Togaviridae690 Rubella690 Complications690 Congenital rubella syndrome691 Homeopathy691
CLASS V – POSITIVE SINGLE STRANDED RNAwith a DNA intermediate in replication; enveloped; bullet-shapedor polyhedral capsid693
Retroviridae693 HIV and retroviruses693 Conservative views and conspiracy theories694 Misconceptions697 Clinical manifestations698 Neurologic699 Wasting701 Dermatologic701 Endocrine701 Gastrointestinal702 Head and neck702 AIDS-defining diseases702 Materia Medica AIDS nosode703 Sources703 Major themes704 Issues706 Repertory rubrics708 Materia Medica Virionum710 Sources710 Symptoms711
CLASS VI – NEGATIVE SINGLE STRANDED RNA 713
a. negative single stranded RNA; enveloped; pleomorphic 713Bornaviridae713 General713 Neuropsychiatric disorders714 Homeopathy 716Filoviridae717 General717 Homeopathy717Paramyxoviridae718 General718 Canine Distemper Virus718 Features718 Homeopathy721 Measles721 Features721 Clinical manifestations722 Sequelae of measles723 Measles vaccine and adverse reactions724 Materia Medica Morbillinum725 Sources725 Indications725 Symptoms727 Cases 727 MMR730 Adverse effects of MMR730 MMR and autism730 MMR cases733 Mumps735 Features735 Clinical manifestations735 Complications of mumps736 Materia Medica Parotidinum [Ourlianum]736 Sources736 Indications736 Symptoms proving737 Suggested repertory rubrics737 Hypothetical drug picture of Parotidinum [Ourlianum]737Rhabdoviridae739 Features739 Clinical manifestations of rabies739 Materia Medica Lyssinum741 Sources741 Symptoms741 Repertory additions747b. segmented negative stranded RNA; enveloped 748Orthomyxoviridae748 Influenza748 Materia Medica Influenzinum750 Sources750 Prophylaxis750 Post-influenzal sequelae750 Flu shots753 Cases754 Materia Medica Influenza vaccine 97/98758 Unclear remedy picture758 Cases759 Materia Medica Oscillococcinum763 The microbe763 Cancer treatment763 The duck764 Symptoms766
Bits and Pieces798
NAMING OF PARTS
Aristotle made in the 4th century BC one of the first attempts to classify living things according to a scientific and orderly system. He made a division into two groups: plants and animals. Depending on their way of locomotion, the animals were placed in three subgroups: flyers, swimmers, and walkers. Fish, sea snake and dolphin consequently fell in the category of swimmers, whilst butterfly, bee, bat and bird were included in the group that flew.
For almost 2000 years Aristotle’s division satisfied biologists, until by the 17th century systems were introduced that classified living organisms according to similarities in form and structure, including internal anatomy and external appearance.
Although organisms were now placed in more meaningful groups, the division as either plants or animals was maintained. The 18th-century Swedish scientist Carl von LinnT devoted his life to improving the two-tier system taxonomically. He introduced the binominal or Linnaean nomenclature, in which all known living organisms are given a formal scientific double name in Latin. First comes the generic and then the specific name.
Flowering plant families vary widely in their contents, as do fungal and other families. Some contain only a single genus and species [monotypic], whereas others contain hundreds of genera and thousands of species [polytypic].
Only recently, around the middle of the 20th century, more consequent divisions of living organisms were proposed and accepted, so that now five kingdoms exist, although some taxonomists have come up with no less than 22 kingdoms.
Homeopathy appears to carry on in the Aristotelean tradition. By and large two groups of living organisms are recognized – plants and animals. Fungi are looked upon as plants without chlorophyl while the Monera kingdom is placed somewhere on the sideline; a few are semi-synthetic antibiotic drugs, the others are disease products called ‘nosodes’.
Also regarding drug names and abbreviations homeopathy lives in pre-Linnaean times. It may be argued that homeopathy has its own systematics, namely a classification according to similarities between drug pictures. True, but for this to work, drug pictures must be absolutely reliable and more or less complete. Such an argument moreover tends to ignore or trivialize the connection between the nature [disposition] of [living] organisms and the signs and symptoms associated with them.
Cross-connections between drugs of different origins, eg a plant and an animal, are a good thing, yet become even better when they are supported by more than symptoms only. Substances, animate or inanimate, are the alpha and omega of the homeopathic materia medica and their interconnections therefore define the relationships between symptom pictures. In my opinion, there is no better way to arrange the materia medica than including the nature of the substances/organisms that serve as its sources.
Classification in homeopathy
Homeopathy has adopted some sort of classification system in order to recognize the similarities between the different remedies and to categorize their common characteristics into larger units. With his Clinical Materia Medica, Ernest A. Farrington [1847-1885] was the first to arrange drug pictures according to taxonomic groups. Farrington’s basic units are what he calls “orders,” which actually are families. Currently many homeopaths favour the use of groupings on the level of so-called families. Classifications such as “snake family”, “spider family”, “crustaceans family”, etc., are formally inaccurate since these groupings concern a suborder [snakes], an order [spiders] and a class [crustaceans], respectively.
We have to deal with considerable problems, not in the last place because we rely on a materia medica, parts of which are clearly past their expiry dates. Another problem is the frequently obsolete nomenclature and taxonomy. How can we connect with other fields of science when we don’t even speak the same language? And what if we want to extend our search for information and use an invalid name?
Attempts have been made in homeopathy to simplify matters by using three kingdoms: animals, plants, minerals. This system needs revision for the simple reason that today the generally accepted classification system comprises five kingdoms, or six if we regard minerals as living organisms: Monera, Protista, Fungi, Plantae, Animalia, and Mineralia.
Bacteria are placed in the Monera kingdom: unicellular organisms whose hereditary material is not enclosed in a nucleus. The kingdom Protista contains a large group of unicellular nucleated organisms. These organisms are on the borderline between plants and animals, and include unicellular algae, downy moulds, dinoflagellates, amoebae, trichomonads and sporozoans [eg, Plasmodium, which causes malaria]. While some are capable of animal-like movement [protozoans], others have distinctly plant-like characteristics [protophyta or chromista].
Fungi in homeopathy are placed in the kingdom Plantae, a division that not only is outdated but also prevents our perceiving them in their own right, with their specific characteristics, which are fundamentally different from those of other kingdoms.
Systems are artificial and for none of the kingdoms a consistent system of classification exists. Although currently the five kingdom classification stands, revisions are underway to better reflect diversity and evolutionary relationships. The proposed revisions split the Monera into two kingdoms [Archaebacteria and Eubacteria] and the Protista into three distinct kingdoms.
The necessity of classification and categorisation
Species can be defined as a group of individuals having common characteristics, while a genus consists of a collection of similar and/or closely related species. The basic units of classification, the species, are grouped into higher or more-inclusive units: above the genus comes the family, then the order, then the class and finally the phylum [also called division].
There are many subdivisions: species are subdivided in subspecies or varieties; families in subfamilies, subfamilies in tribes, tribes in subtribes; classes in subclasses; and phylla in subphylla [or subdivisions]. Cultivated [plant] varieties are known as cultivars. The category “superorder” is placed between the taxonomic categories order and subclass or class.
The higher the rank, the larger the number of species contained and consequently the more general and less specific the distinctive features. This can be employed in a similar fashion in case analysis. Starting at the top we first try to decide for the larger unit – snake, spider, fungus, mineral, metal, etc. – and then work our way downward, fine-tuning our choice. Or we begin at the level of the species – a certain remedy – and refine our selection by differentiating within the larger unit of which the species is part.
Homeopathic remedy abbreviations
The current abbreviation system in homeopathy doesn’t follow clear rules. Its ambiguity lies in the fact that remedy names, and thus their abbreviations, sometimes refer to a genus, eg Hyoscyamus or Conium, and at other times to a species, eg Dulcamara or Abrotanum. A more consistent approach would be to use the Latin binominals of organisms instead of drug names. This always gives first the generic and then the specific name, thereby revealing relationships between remedies on the generic level. If the abbreviation for, say, Stramonium would be in line with the binominal system, it would show right away its alliance with other Datura species. It would be good practice to extend abbreviations now solely indicating the genus, eg Lycopodium or Arnica, with the specific name, thus: Lyc-c. [Lycopodium clavatum] and Arn-m. [Arnica montana], in order to allow future inclusion of other members of such genera. Single names referring to a species, such as Absin. or Bell., can be placed as an extension behind the generic name, preserving the traditional abbreviation: Art-absin.[Artemisia absinthium] and Atro-bell. [Atropa belladonna]. In certain instances the link between a plant and its main alkaloid can then be observed as well: Atropa belladonna and Atropinum. The additional plus-point of such a system, namely the possibilty of recognizing themes and patterns of naturally related remedies within repertory rubrics, may serve as a compensation for the trouble of getting accustomed to new names and abbreviations.
Why more remedies?
According to some there is no need for more homeopathic remedies. The polychrests are supposedly good for a 70-80 percentage of cured cases, with a handful of small remedies to fill the gaps. As much self-confirming as self-assuring, this philosophy is in contradiction with the major asset of homeopathy: individualisation. Individualisation works both ways: it is required in each case and it is the cornerstone for self-development of the homeopath.
To keep on enlarging established drug pictures works as a self-fulfilling prophesy: the more symptoms are added to a remedy the more often it will be encountered in the repertories, resulting in its being prescribed more frequently, leading to more repertory additions, and so on.
Aside from the concept of polychrests as conflicting with the essence of homeopathy, polychrests derive much of their apparent identity from containing symptoms and indications common to the larger unit of which they are a member. For example, a large portion of the Lachesis symptoms are snake symptoms rather than individual symptoms typical for the particular species Lachesis muta. The species with the longest use as a homeopathic remedy, or when it is the sole representative of a group, therefore automatically will have most symptoms, due to additions from clinical cases, resulting in its being elevated to polychrest status. Only a proportionally small part of a given number of symptoms will be, by definition, species-related, while the rest is common to the genus, family or an even larger unit.
More remedies, provided their introduction follows some logic, will allow homeopathy to further develop its main contribution to health care: treatment of individuals.
Without going outside, you may know the whole world…
Monera are bacteria. They play a minor role in homeopathy. They have no place as a group and their symptom pictures are often obscure. The current trend of facilitating the selection of remedies on the basis of their place in the natural kingdoms, not only ignores the fungi as a distinct unit, but also the micro-organisms. There are some 80 bacteria listed in the remedy abbreviation list. Some of them are symptomless, whereas a few others have thousands of symptoms.
Bacterial remedies fall into three categories:
— allopathic drugs synthesized from bacterial metabolites;
— normal commensals of the microbial flora;
— species associated with bacterial diseases.
The latter category contains the major nosodes: Medorrhinum, Syphilinum, and Tuberculinum. Psorinum can be included or excluded, depending on one’s view. [See Penicillium, Spectrum Vol. 2].
A step forward in realising the importance of micro-organisms might be the recent introduction of new “miasms” in addition to the traditional quartet. However, these new miasms mainly serve as categorisation models and hardly pay attention to the micro-organisms associated with them.
The better we learn to know a person, the better we understand him or her. So it is with any other living organism. Learning to know a bacterium, or a virus for that matter, seems less appealing than getting acquainted with animals, plants, or stones. We may feel attracted to flowers, trees, animals, gemstones, metals, but we quickly develop a disliking, or even fear or repulsion for micro-organisms. Bugs bug us; we have bad names for them: germs, creeps, parasites, pathogens, in short: disposable creatures. Flowers have powers, animals have spirits, stones are healers, but bacteria and viruses are “killers.” Animals we domesticate, plants we cultivate, bacteria we exterminate. What we cannot see with the naked eye, we tend to discount. With a generous dash of humour, Robert Buckman, a Canadian professor of medicine, succeeds in putting words to what there is to see:
“If the numbers of species on Planet Earth are staggering, the numbers on or in Planet Human are hardly less so. For example, the body space of an average adult human being comprises approximately 100 trillion cells – that is one hundred million separate units of living matter. This is a fairly impressive number. Even more impressive, however, is the fact that of those 100 trillion cells inside the average human frame, only 10 trillion are human cells. The other 90 trillion cells are bacteria [with a few other parasites, fungi, and miscellaneous riff-raff thrown in for good measure]. Inside our own bodies we are outnumbered by other species nine to one. Fortunately, the human body is not a democracy, so even though our bodily bacteria do influence our workings in many ways, they don’t have a vote. They therefore cannot decide – on their own – to throw us out entirely [although on occasions they can cause a variety of expulsions and upsets and ultimately, if one cares to think of it that way, they can cause revolution, dissolution, and redistribution]. Yet, even accepting that some species have the potential for doing us considerable harm, we can perhaps afford to be a little fairer to many of the other less threatening species with whom we share our body [and, in some cases, our planet].
Not everything that is non-human is necessarily bad for us. The mood of recent times has been to regard every non-human species in or on our bodies as untrustworthy and threatening. This is undoubtedly true of some species: there is no such thing as a friendly smallpox virus, and you cannot domesticate a malarial parasite and have it come when you call it.”
Hubris versus humus
Bacteria are of major importance to Mother Earth. “An uncharted world of bacteria and other micro-organisms exists in and on the bodies of larger organisms,” Edward Wilson has written. Some of the species are neutral guests, neither harming nor helping their hosts; others assist their hosts in digestion, excretion, and even the production of light. Although the vast majority of bacterial types remain unknown, bacteria are perceived as relatively well known because they are so important in medicine and ecology. When in the 1920s the idea was proposed that cell components, eg, mitochondria, originated as symbiotic bacteria, it was roundly rejected and ridiculed. Bacteria were agents of disease, dangerous pests, troublemakers, lying in wait to inflict harm on us. Spirochetes were transmitters of venereal disease, not the originators of motility and as such of the sperm tails of men. Bacteria had no place in the context of life’s evolution.
In his Foreword to Microcosmos, an intriguing tale of microbial evolution by Lynn Margulis and Dorion Sagan, Lewis Thomas brings the entire affair into the open. He writes: “The biosphere is all of a piece, an immense, integrated living system, an organism. — We used to believe that we arrived de novo, set in place by the Management, maybe not yet dressed but ready anyway to name all the animals. — Most of us would prefer, given the choice, to track our species back to pure lines of kings and queens, stopping there and looking no further. But now look at our dilemma. The first of us, the very first of our line, appeared sometime around 3.5 billion years ago, a single bacterial cell, the Ur-ancestor of all the life to come. We go back to it, of all things. Moreover, for all our elegance and eloquence as a species, for all our massive frontal lobes, for all our music, we have not progressed all that far from our microbial forebears. They are still with us, part of us. Or, put it another way, we are part of them. — [Over a] 2.5 billion year stretch of time… our microbial ancestors, all by themselves, laid out most of the rules and regulations for interliving, habits we humans should be studying now for clues to our own survival. — Perhaps we have had a shared hunch about our real origin longer than we think. It is there like a linguistic fossil, buried in the ancient root from which we take our species’ name. The word for earth, at the beginning of the Indoeuropean language thousands of years ago was dhghem. From this word, meaning simply earth came our word humus, the handiwork of soil bacteria. Also, to teach us the lesson, humble, human, and humane. There is the outline of a philological parable here. –”
Nosodes and vaccines
Regarding nosodes and vaccines, invaluable work was done by the late French homeopathic physician O.A. Julian. Why French homeopathy in general appears to be favourably disposed towards the use of nosodes is an interesting question. To a lesser extent the same holds true for German homeopathy. Here is a little history.
The French, with Louis Pasteur as their champion, have done much to promote the germ theory of disease. [A role played in Germany by Koch, amongst others.] Convinced that micro-organisms are responsible for disease, Pasteur succeeded in persuading the medical community that only particular organisms can produce specific conditions and that once those organisms were known, prevention would be possible by developing vaccines. To understand how influential the French have been, we only have to look at the number of micro-organisms or vaccines named after French researchers working at one time at the Pasteur Institute in Paris, eg, Bordet, Yersin, Calmette, Borrel, and Pasteur himself. It should therefore not come as a surprise that French homeopaths, eg, Cartier, Vannier, Fortier-Bernoville, Sevaux, and particularly Julian, have introduced into homeopathy a fair amount of remedies derived from either micro-organisms or vaccines. Contrary to Pasteur’s coming through in scientific circles with flying colours, the homeopathic community has barely taken notice of the French contributions.
Germs as the cause of trouble might not agree with Hahnemann’s concept of an invisible spiritual [dynamic] force capable of affecting and being affected by similar forces, making microbes the result instead of the cause. It nevertheless doesn’t take away practical considerations as to the employment of such remedies. Disregarding such established ones as Psorinum, Medorrhinum and Syphilinum, the use of any other nosode in homeopathy is more or less tantamount to being a last resort. If used at all, their use seems to be confined to desperate cases, blocked cases, relapsing cases; no or insufficient activity of apparently well-selected remedies, or malignancies. Might this not just be a reflection of the difficulties in giving “microbial” remedies a place? Accepting remedies from the microbial kingdom would seem to amount to accepting the germ theory as the cause of disease. Yet, irrespective of whether we believe microbes to be cause or result, homeopathy is based on similarity of phenomena.
Over time the established nosodes have grown into recognisable drug pictures for the simple reason that they have been used. Successful cases have been passed on and have helped to flesh out a better picture. Creativity and courage constitute homeopathy’s essential requisites. To be able to prescribe we need something on which to base the prescription. Some of the presented microbial remedies are, admittedly, still in their infancy, perhaps never to mature, whilst others have enough individual elements to enable recognition, provided we study them closely. As with photographs, drug pictures also may be enlarged and refined. The sharpness or completeness of a picture depends as much on our focus as on the object.
The dose makes the poison
Paracelsus argued that the right dose differentiates a poison and a remedy, which is now known as the dose-response relationship, the Arndt-Schulz Law, a major concept of toxicology. To this Paracelsian axiom homeopathy has added its two main concepts: susceptibility and analogy. Assuming that the difference between a virulent poison and a great remedy also lies in the combination of dose, susceptibility and similarity, it would seem unfortunate that certain biological agents have such a minor place in homeopathy. For example, the deep impact of the Black Death, with Yersinia pestis as its biological agent, has “thrust this dread disease into the collective memory of western civilisation,” as one author aptly put it. Terror-stricken societies sought to diffuse the threat by either trying to appease the God who perceivedly had brought the plague upon them or by attempting to create a common bond of union among human beings. It would be a mistake to disregard plague because it occurred in medieval times and evoked what we now would consider superstitious reactions, if not mass hysteria. On the basis of analogy, plague represents as much as it causes. Being derived from ‘plaga’, Latin for ‘strike’ or ‘blow,’ plague stands for being stricken, terror-stricken, panic-stricken, stricken by a wrathful God, by war, by famine, by terrorists. It has played a role in many military campaigns: it befell armies of antiquity [Frederick the Great’s as well as Napoleon’s troops] and military traffic through Asia brought plague in its trail. The possible use of biological agents as vehicles for terrorism has recently induced considerable fear and alertness in western societies. Amongst such agents are plague, anthrax, brucellosis, smallpox and botulism. Aside from bringing up traumatic memories, and while not suggesting that terror is unique to plague, plague lives in the human collective subconsciousness as a miasmatic stain, which in remedy form, it might help to allay.
Many questions, different answers
Harry van der Zee wrote in the Editorial to Homoeopathic Links 4/01: “Let us suppose that our appreciation of what we and our patients experience in life is indeed, most of the time, determined by a limited perception. Suppose that all those influences that we label as bad are indeed part of a perfect harmony. What then should our attitude be towards them? In general as a method of healing, homeopathy already provides an answer to this question. We are not out there killing the microbes, but rather helping our patients to live in better harmony, both with themselves and also with their surroundings, including the world of micro-organisms. —
In daily homeopathic practice, there are nevertheless still a lot of issues concerning infectious disease that deserve thought, experiment and discussion. — How to deal with vaccinations, and with their effects? Do we have an alternative to them? What is the role of nosodes in homeopathic practice? What is there to know about lesser-known nosodes? Is there room for isopathy in classical homeopathy? How to understand and deal with the miasms? — Considering the rich diversity of our profession I’m sure many have come to different answers. Let’s share them, put them together, and see whether there is music in the totality of all these individual notes.”
Will there ever come a time that we speak of a Staphylococcus-type, a Pestinum-personality, Salmonella-cravings, or Dysentery-characteristics? Realising our attitude towards micro-organisms helps us to understand our vision of them as potential remedies.
By a great deal of collecting, some connecting and a little bit of correcting I have attempted to bring together building blocks in order to start constructing a materia medica worthwhile focussing upon. I have followed H.C. Allen’s advice that “to a proving of Anthracinum must be added all the symptoms of uncomplicated splenic fever; to those of Hydrophobinum [Lyssinum], the symptoms of every case of pure hydrophobia [rabies]; to those of Syphilinum all those of pure syphilis, etc., etc.”
If, as Hering says, “the symptoms of the snake-bite and from the bee-sting have been proved to be useful in numerous cases,” why not also the symptoms induced by Streptococcus, Clostridium, Brucella, Leptospira, etc.?
And if, as Wills has it, “cholera [is] an involuntary experiment on a very large scale,” would then the numerous other “involuntary experiments” not at least furnish outlines of symptom pictures, in a similar fashion, albeit more crude, as provings do?
The first to manufacture and prove Medorrhinum and Syphilinum, Swan was of the same opinion as Wills: “Morbillinum, Scarlatinum, Variolinum” [and the rest] “are the fullest proved poisons in existence; they have been proven for hundreds of years by tens of thousands of persons, old and young, male and female. Here we have the provings ready made by nature for us on healthy persons. Collate the symptoms — and you have the pathogenetic effect of that poison, and when you have such in the sick, administer the potentized and you will cure the effects of that poison.”
In the Preface to his book Rats, Lice and History, Zinsser makes the striking observation that, “In following infectious diseases about the world, one ends by regarding them as biological individuals which have lived through centuries, — having existences which, in their developments and wanderings, can be treated biographically.”
Humans have their personal histories, so have biological individuals. Hopefully both educative and entertaining, the following is an attempt to unravel parts of such biographies.
The naming of bacteria is controlled by the International Code of Nomenclature of Bacteria. Since 1 January 1980, priority of bacterial names is based upon the Approved Lists of Bacterial Names [Skerman et al., 1980]. The names of the bacteria in Spectrum are in accordance with the Approved List, with the exception of the species without author citations. The latter names, often old synonyms, are without valid publications and therefore have no official standing in bacterial nomenclature.
I have included clinical cases, old and new, from homeopathic literature, for which Reference Works and Encyclopaedia Homeopathica have beenindispensable and for which I am indebted to colleagues granting me permission to use their cases.
The reasons for including cases are manifold: they are illustrative, show vaious approaches in case analysis and remedy selection, demonstrate the value of locals and disease history, reveal that everyone struggles, prove that dedication and determination go a long way, clarify that polychrests are no panaceas, and above all, highlight the wonders of homeopathy.
Many thanks to everyone for helping collecting data, for proof-reading, correcting and translating, for being patient, for making difficult subjects lighter to digest and easy ones more complicated, for offering opinions, for explaining national or local customs, for reading the introduction, to Maud and Claire for being Maud and Claire.
Many special thanks to Jenni Tree, editor of the book, for her comments andadditions. She has given Spectrum form and colour.