By Dana Ullman MPH
(Excerpted from Discovering Homeopathy: Medicine for the 21st Century, North Atlantic Books)
Portraits of our country’s first president, George Washington, rarely show him smiling and for a good reason: George Washington’s false teeth were made with a combination of gold, ivory, lead, human and animal teeth. Though they were well sculpted by his blacksmith friend Paul Revere, this crude set of teeth did not have the same polish as nature’s artistry.
Dentistry has come a long way since the time of George Washington, but it still has a long way to go in order to deal with the degree of dental problems affecting people today.
It has been estimated that 98% of the American public suffers from dental disease. (1) Approximately 25 million Americans, or one in every eight people do not have any teeth. (2) And over six million teeth are removed each year. (3)
One may wonder what homeopathic medicine may offer dentistry. It initially seems that dental disease is a straightforward problem that simply requires good hygiene for prevention and the use of modern dental practices to deal with dental problems as they arise. Dentistry doesn’t seem to be a controversial subject, or is it? Although there may be general agreement on the importance of prevention, there is disagreement on how to prevent dental problems, and there is significant controversy on how to deal with them when they arise.
It is generally recognized that tooth decay (caries) results from bacteria in the mouth which thrive on the sugar and refined foods that the person eats. The bacteria produces a harmful acid which can dissolve teeth. When the teeth are not kept clean through brushing and flossing, the germs are able to infiltrate through the enamel and into the dentin of the teeth or under the gums of the mouth, wreaking havoc by causing decay and peridontal disease.
When the bacteria isn’t cleaned out of the mouth, it binds with corrosive waste products in the mouth and attaches itself to teeth and gums, forming plaque. Plaque destroys the connective tissues that attach gums to teeth, creating inflammation of the gums or gingivitis. If this disease process continues, the teeth will loosen and eventually either fall out or need to be removed.
Dental caries and gum problems are thought to result primarily because of the poor care and maintenence of the oral cavity. There are, however, other factors that influence the development of caries. It is recognized that the salivary glands in the mouth help fight decay by trying to neutralize the acid that the germs produce. The healthy functioning of the salivary glands are dependent on the person’s overall health.
The person’s overall health also directly affects gum health. Hormones, in particular, play a major role in the health of gums. If a person’s thyroid is either secreting too much or too little thyroid hormones, the ligaments that hold teeth and gums together are weakened and the blood supply to gum tissues is decreased. Imbalance in sex hormones can make a person more susceptible to gum and teeth problems, which is why women experience exacerbated dental conditions during puberty, menstruation, pregnancy, and menopause. Anemia which can lessen the amount of blood oxygen reaching the gums can also make a person more susceptible to gum disease. Even something as general as stress can influence the strength of the connective tissues between teeth and gums.
The person’s overall health also influences the strength of the person’s teeth. The parathyroid regulates calcium levels in the body, and an irregularity in this gland can create various dental problems.
A person’s overall health is affected by proper nutrition, and dental health is certainly influenced by it too. In particular, dentists have found that appropriate amounts of calcium and fluoride are important for dental health. There is however a major controversy on how much fluoride is necessary and how people should get it. Please consult your local dental office if you have any questions.
Homeopathic Insights on the Controversy of Fluoridation
The American Dental Association asserts that water fluoridation decreases dental caries by 50-70%. (4) Opponents of fluoridation question its value in preventing these dental problems and cite dozens of studies which show the toxic effects of fluoridation. Who’s right?
The homeopathic point of view on fluoride is that it may be helpful in preventing caries and it may cause various other dental and health problems. The basic homeopathic principle is that a substance in microdose will help cure those similar symptoms that it will cause in larger dose. Fluoride is an effective medicine in preventing caries, but it can also mottle (turn chalky white or yellow) teeth and cause various other symptoms.
The essential question then is: what is the proper dose to prevent caries and what is the toxic dose? This questionis more difficult than it seems. People have varying needs, and what may be helpful to one person may be too much to another. A 1982 article in Science noted that the 1 part per million of fluoride which is commonly added to water may be too much after all. (5) The author noted that 28% of children between 11 and 13 years of age who lived in communities with fluoridation experienced mottling of the teeth.
Fluoride, as an enzyme poison, may in fact help reduce the formation of bacterial acid in the mouth that corrodes teeth. However, even in the same dose, fluoride may create various symptoms because of its side effects on bodily enzymes which are beneficial for health. A new study reported in the New Scientist has provided b evidence that “fluoride switches off the enzyme by attacking its weakest links–the delicately-balanced network of hydrogen bonds surround the enzyme’s active site.” (6) The researchers theorize that fluoride may interfere with the hydrogen bonding of DNA in the same way that it interferes with certain enzymes, which may then explain how fluoride can cause a wide variety of symptoms and syndromes.
Anti-fluoridationists readily acknowledge that dental caries declined significantly when fluoridation was first tested. However, they also cite the fact that dental caries declined for people in unfluoridated cities as well. (7)
According to the U.S. National Academy of Sciences, fluoride is not considered an essential nutrient. (8) A deficiency of fluoride is extremely unusual for those eating a standard American diet. Whereas the American Dental Association asserts that fluoridation assures that people will get amounts of fluoride that will prevent caries, anti-fluoridationists rebut that we are already getting enough, perhaps even too much. The anti-fluoridationists have expressed concern that additional fluoride in the diet will cause a wide variety of serious health problems. It has been estimated that dried cereals, ready-to-drink fruit juices, infant formula, and strained baby food processed with fluoridated water contain up to 20 times as much fluoride as products made with unfluoridated water. (9)
Those who oppose fluoride have been portrayed as wild-eyed, crazy, health nuts who see communist conspiracies in everything. This accusation has no basis in fact, especially when one considers that most countries in Europe have not fluoridated their water, including France, Germany, Italy, Spain, Switzerland, Sweden, Holland, Denmark, Austria, and Belgium.
Further, recent scientific research has begun to verify several of the health concerns of the anti-fluoridationists. Dr. John Yiamouyiannis, a biochemist who is one of the leaders of the anti-fluoridation movement, noted that the mottling of teeth is “merely a reflection of the metabolic disturbances of soft tissue cells” from an overdose of fluoride. (10) The 1983 Physicians Desk Reference has noted that 1/2 milligram of fluoride, an amount equal to only one pint of fluoridate water, can cause skin problems, gastric distress, headaches, and weakness in hypersensitive individuals. Yale professor Dr. J.A. Albright reported that as little as one part per million of fluoride decreases bone strength and elasticity. (11) A study published in the Journal of Dental Research showed that one part per million of fluoride fed to animals inhibited their immune system. (12)
Research has also shown that levels of one-half to one part per million of fluoride causes increased tumor growth in mice by 15-25%. (13) Based on this research, one might expect that those who live in cities with fluoridated water may have a higher cancer rate than those who live in unfluoridated cities. Dr. Yiamouyiannis in conjunction with former chief chemist with the U.S. National Cancer Institute Dr. Dean Burk did this comparison and found that people living in fluoridated cities did, in fact, have higher cancer death rates than those in other cities in surrounding geographical areas. (14) However, a careful analysis of these statistics which was published in the New England Journal of Medicine noted that this study was not age-adjusted research.* (15) This critique of the Yiamouyiannis and Burk study indicates that there is no proven link between fluoridation and cancer.
[* Age-adjusted research is a means of comparing populations based on similar age groups. Without this adjustment certain cities with elderly populations would seem to have significantly higher death rates than other cities, which is just what happened in the Yiamouyiannis-Burk study.]
Although there may not be definate evidence that fluoridation may lead to cancer, many clinicians have found that it can cause diarrhea, muscular pains, excessive thirst and urination, episodes of acute abdominal pain, skin rashes, and progressive exhaustion. George Waldbott, M.D., a practicing allergist for over 50 years and author of Fluoridation: The Great Deilemma, has noted that many physicians misdiagnose this sensitivity as “nerves,” and then prescribe drugs which ultimately exacerbate the problem. (16)
In addition to the potential problems that fluoride in water may cause, new research published in the highly respected scientific journal Nature has found that using fluorided water in aluminum pots tends to leech more aluminum into the food or water. (17) Since ingestion of aluminum has been linked to Alzheimer’s disease, it may be prudent to avoid aluminum cookware, especially if one uses fluoridated water.
Whereas homeopathic organizations do not have a formal position on fluoridation, there is general acknowledgement in the homeopathic community that certain individuals in populations will be hypersensitive to fluoride. Although the American Dental Association (ADA) acknowledges this hypersensitivity in a very small number of Americans, homeopaths generally assume that there are greater numbers than those assumed by the A.D.A. There is also concern among homeopaths about what long-term exposure to small doses of fluoride may cause.
There is further concern among some homeopaths that fluoridation amounts to forced medication. Even those who get bottled water will receive additional fluoride as the result of increased fluoride in the food chain from watering fruits and vegetables, from washing fruits or vegetables in tap water, and from feeding fluoridated water to animals who will be consumed. Ralph Nader expressed a similar concern when he spoke at a college in 1974, saying, “Fluoridation has been promoted without giving consumers their free choice.” (18)
Some anti-fluoridationists have flippantly advocated that we “fluoridate candy, not water.” Perhaps even this isn’t a good idea.
Amalgam Fillings: The Controversy
In 1840 the American Society of Dental Surgeons (ASDS) was formed, and it was America’s first licensing body. This organization required that its members sign an oath affirming that they would not use mercury-containing materials in their dental fillings. The ADSD eventually died a couple of decades later and its rival organization, the American Dental Association, advocated for amalgam fillings. Throughout the ADA’s history, some dentists have questioned the safety of these fillings.
Recently however, a small but growing group of ADA dentists are again expressing concern about amalgams. Amalgam fillings are primarily composed of mercury, silver, tin, and cooper. The anti-amalgam dentists assert that the oral cavity is the only place in the human body where we commonly place non-biological materials. These dentists also note that the upper teeth are less than 10 centimeters to the brain and that high concentrations of mercury found post-mortem in the brain have been correlated to the numbers and surfaces of the amalgam fillings. (19) They express further concern that we have never adequately tested the bio-compatibility of these metals. It is ironic, they note, that public health officials require that dentists keep their mercury in an airtight container and that they do not throw their excess mercury away in the trash, but must dispose of it in a carefully determined fashion. And yet, dentists readily place this toxic substance in people’s mouths. In fact, over 85% of the American public have amalgam fillings in their mouth.
Joe Graedon, a respected pharmacologist and author of The People’s Pharmacy, expressed concern about amalgam feelings, stating, “How can the mercury get loose? Corrosion is the culprit. While a hunk of metal in your tooth looks impervious, it may be subject to corrosion. In addition to the chemical environment of your mouth, which includes a constant saliva bath which tends to dissolve tin, amalgam in contact with other metals (such as a good bridge) creates a minature electrochemical cell which is hellbent on dissolving itself out of existence, freeing mercury in the process.” (20)
Until very recently, the ADA has rebutted the anti-amalgam dentists noting that there is no evidence that the amalgams release any mercury or other metals into the body. New technology however has been able to detect this leeching. Studies have shown that people with amalgam fillings have detectable levels of mercury vapors in their breath. (21) The ADA responded to this research by stating that mercury vapors in the mouth did not prove the presence of increased mercury in the blood. Newer studies however have shown that blood mercury concentration in patients with amalgam filling were signficantly higher than those without such fillings. (22) Although it is not yet conclusive what symptoms this leeching may cause, some research has shown that people with amalgam fillings had a significant decrease in T-cells* after insertion of fillings than before their insertion or after their removal. (23)
[* T-cells are important components of the immune system.]
Counter to those who have asserted that amalgam fillings release toxic amounts of metals into the body, the Medical Letter, one of the most respected medical newsletters in the U.S., has doubted if the leeching causes any medical problems, except in a very small number of people allergic to the amalgam. (24) The Medical Letter, however, did not address the concerns of acupuncturists and others familiar with Chinese medicine who do not simply worry about toxic exposure, but also about how the fillings affect acupuncture points under the teeth. Acupuncturists note that the metalic fillings have the potential of acting as batteries and capacitors which can generate current and store electrical charges. Since every tooth is situated on an acupuncture meridian, the filling may provide additional stress which may create acute and/or chronic symptoms in susceptible individuals.
The fact that acupuncture points reside under the teeth may be one possible explanation that homeopaths sometimes observe that the action of homeopathic medicines are antidoted by some dental work, including getting teeth cleaned or getting new fillings. It has been conjectured that some dental work stimulates so many acupuncture points in a short period of time that it may “short circuit” the action of the homeopathic medicines. More research on this phenomena would certainly be worthwhile.
Although most homeopaths are unfamiliar with the controversies surrounding amalgam fillings, there have always been certain ones who have noted the health effects of these fillings. As far back as the late 1800s, Dr. Charles Taft, professor of dental surgery at a homeopathic medical college in Chicago, claimed that amalgam fillings were responsible for the fact that some patients with chronic disease were not responding to homeopathic medicines. Once these fillings were removed, he found that the medicines worked, and the person’s chronic condition disappeared or was significantly reduced. (25)
As with fluoridation, homeopaths find that some people are more sensitive to certain metals. Since dentists generally recognize this fact also, the most practical way to deal with it is for dentists to test the bio-compatibility of various types of fillings before placing them in a person’s mouth. Certain recognized immunological tests can be used, though they are expensive. Some dentists have found that new electroacupuncture machines are able to assess subtle but measurable changes in the meridian energy which acupuncturists feel can determine hypersensitivity. (26) Although this new technology may hold promise, its accuracy is presently undetermined.
Homeopaths are also concerned about the inevitable long-term exposure to metals in the fillings. Some homeopaths have found that potentized doses of Mercury has helped some people, but most homeopaths recognize the importance of strict individualization of the person in order to provide help to people suffering from their fillings. Homeopaths also have observed, as did homeopathic dentist Taft, that fillings sometimes have to be removed before improvement in health is possible.
Homeopathic Medicines for Dental Problems
“For there was never yet a philosopher that could endure the toothache patiently.”
—Much Ado About Nothing, Act V, Scene I, William Shakespeare
Besides offering a different perspective on fluoridation and amalgam fillings, homeopathy also offers specific medicines that can be invaluable in reducing dental pain and alleviating dental disease.
It should first be mentioned that homeopathic medicines do not replace good dental care but complement it. Also, the medicines may be effective in relieving dental pain, but it is often necessary to discover what the source of the pain is in order to cure the underlying problem. If pain is occurring due to an abscess, it is not enough simply to reduce the pain. The abscess must be treated.
One dental problem that homeopaths report treating effectively is fear, anxiety, and anticipation of the dental visit. Whether these emotions be “rational” or not, homeopaths have found three medicines to be most commonly effective. Aconite (monkshood) is a common medicine given to patients, usually children, for their fear of dentists. These people become furious, restless and angry (children tend to stamp their feet and kick), and tend to express extreme sensitivity to touch. Gelsemium (yellow jasmine) is indicated in those people who experience trepidation, feeling of weakness (especially a weak feeling in the stomach), drowsiness, loss of memory, and diarrhea. Those who need Gelsemium tend to be hypokinetic, whereas those who need Argenicum nitricum (silver nitrate) tend to be hyperkinetic. Argenticum nitricum is useful for patients who experience tremor and trembling of the whole body, who tend to be particularly talkative and hurried in their actions, and who have an inner nervousness which affects the bladder and intestines.
In order to determine the appropriate homeopathic medicine for toothaches, it is helpful to learn what the source of the problem is. If it is the result of a dental abscess, the common medicines are Belladonna (deadly nightshade), Mercurius (mercury), Hepar sulph (Hahnemann’s calcium sulphur), and Silicea (silica). Belladonna is indicated at the initial formative stages where there isn’t much swelling, though there is much throbbing and redness. Mercurius is helpful when the person is salivating excessively, has foul breath, and experiences a pulsating pain which tends to be worse at night or from exposure to anything extremely hot or cold. Hepar sulph is valuable in the later stages of abscess when pus has formed. The tooth affected is hypersensitive to touch and to cold, and the gums bleed easily. Homeopaths have reported that this medicine helps drain pus from the abscess. Silicea is indicated after the pus has discharged; at this stage it hastens the resolution of the abscess.
Although these medicines may be helpful in alleviating the pain and in some instances in curing, it is often necessary for the abscess to be drained and either a root canal established or the tooth removed.
For pain and inflammation around wisdom teeth, homeopaths and dentists have found that Belladonna is often given for throbbing pains and Hepar sulph to promote expulsion of pus. Mercurius is helpful in treating the pulsating pains that extend to the ears, especially at night. People who need Mercurius also tend to have noticeably increased salivation. Locally, mouthwashes with tincture of Salvia (sage) are sometimes helpful.
Neuralgic toothaches often yield to Chamomilla when the person is in such pain they can’t take it any more. People who need Chamomilla tend to be particularly sensitive to warm food and drink (especially coffee), and their symptoms are worse at night. For those who are so frantic with pain that they cannot sleep, whose pains are also relieved by holding cold water or ice in the mouth, and who are not relieved by Chamomilla, Coffea is indicated. Plantago (plantain) is one of the more common medicines indicated when there is a toothache with radiating pains to the ears. Accompanying these pains generally are salivation, facial neuralgia, and headache. Homeopaths usually use the tincture or low potencies for the best results from this medicine. Other medicines that homeopaths consider when dental pain extends to the ears are Mercurius and Sulphur, the prescription of which is determined by the totality of the person’s symptoms (these medicines however are never given in tincture).
Hypericum (St. John’s wort–the herb) is the prominent medicine given to people for neuralgic pains after tooth extractions. Recent double-blind research has confirmed its effectiveness. (27) This study showed that when Hypericum was given in alternation with Arnica (mountain daisy) to people after tooth extraction, they experienced significantly less dental pain as compared to those given a placebo.
Dr. George Baldwin, an Oakland, California dentist, Dr. Philip Parsons, a Keystone Heights, Florida dentist, and Dr. Richard Fischer, an Annandale, Virginia dentist, have allreported impressive results using Ruta (rue) for people who have pain after dental surgery. Ruta is known in homeopathy as a great medicine for injuries to the bone and periosteum (the bone covering)[see Chapter 10 on Sports Medicine for more detail]. Since teeth are actually considered by anatomists to be joints,* it is certainly understandable that Ruta would be useful for traumas or injuries to them.
[* It is surprising to realize that teeth are considered ball and socket joints.]
Homeopaths have also reported success in treating hemorrhage after extraction, surgery, or accidental dental trauma. Some homeopaths give Arnica to prevent hemorrhage or give it in the very initial stages of bleeding. If bleeding persists and is bright red, Phosphorus is commonly effective. In the rare instances when Phosphorus doesn’t act rapidly, Ipecacuanha (ipecac) is often indicated. Lachesis (venom of the bushmaster snake) is valuable if the blood is dark. And if a person commonly has bleeding problems, it is recommended they receive constitutional homeopathic care.
If a puncture wound in the gum is incurred from surgery is causing pain, Ledum (marsh tea) can relieve the pain and help it heal. If infection has already set in, Pyrogen (artificial sepsin) is indicated. Calendula (marigolds) in its tincture form is also helpful in conjunction with either of these medicines.
The tincture of Calendula is not only useful in speeding the healing of punctures, it is also valuable in healing trauma from injuries to the oral cavity. It is of use for kids whose braces irritate their gums or mouth and for the elderly whose dentures do not fit well (ultimately getting the braces or dentures adjusted will also be necessary). Burns from ingesting extremely hot food or drinks or from aspirin burns are alleviated byCalendula tincture as well. If the tincture isn’t readily available, making a tea of marigolds is as effective.
A “dry socket” is the source of many people’s dental pain. This condition occurs after an extraction when the blood doesn’t clot well, and the bone and its nerve endings are exposed. Mouthwashes of Salvia (sage) infusions several times a day diminish some of the pain. Other medicines for this pain are: Belladonna for redness around the gums and throbbing pains that come and go rapidly; Coffea for unbearableble pains that cause the person to be very restless and that are temporarily relieved by cold water or ice in the mouth; Hepar sulph for pain that is hypersensitive to touch and to cold; and Silicea to help in the final stages when clot around the tooth ultimately needs to be detached. If none of the above medicines seems indicated or is working, Ruta should be given.
A dental problem which has only recently become widely recognized is temporomandibular joint (TMJ) syndrome. (28) This condition has linked various dental and other health problems to the malalignment of the jaw joint, the temporomandibular joint. It has been estimated that 38% of all impulses that go to the brain pass near this joint area. Malalignment of this jaw has been found to lead to symptoms as diverse as headache, vertigo, ringing in the ears, sinus pains, hearing loss, depression, and tic doulourex. Dr. Harold Gelb, director of the TMJ Clinic at the New York Eye and Ear Infirmary, has estimated that 20 million Americans suffer from TMJ. (29) Some dentists have estimated that 50% of all headaches are traceable to this syndrome. (30)
Because of the diversity of symptoms that TMJ sufferers experience, there are many medicines which homeopaths consider in determining proper treatment. As with any other chronic malady, the homeopathic approach requires an assessment of the person’s totality of symptoms. Care from a professional homeopath is clearly indicated in such cases.
Besides treating acute dental problems, homeopathic medicines have the capacity to treat various chronic dental problems as well. Since some chronic dental conditions result from general health problems of the person, homeopathic medicines which have the capacity to strengthen a person’s overall health therefore can augment general dental hygiene in order to prevent and treat teeth and gum disease.
The proper functioning of the salivary glands enables the body to digest foods and to neutralize the acids that germs in the mouth produce. Healthy functioning of the endocrine system helps the ligaments that hold teeth to gums remain b and aids the transport of blood to gums. The parathyroid gland is instrumental in helping to regulate calcium levels in the body. Because overall functioning of the body play an integral role in dental health, homeopathy will inevitably be recognized as a necessary part of general health care as well as good dental health.
It is certainly encouraging that more and more dentists are utilizing homeopathic medicines. For those whose dentists have not yet made the transition to homeopathy, lay people can learn to use the medicines themselves with impressive success. In order to obtain the best results, it is recommended to obtain several books (not just books on homeopathy and dentistry, but also some of the materia medicas in order to learn more about the medicines–See the resources section at the end of this book for details on accessing books). And, when possible, it is highly recommended to attend seminars on homeopathic dentistry.
Homeopathy can help keep you smiling!
- Melvin Denholz and Elaine Denholtz, How to Save Your Teeth and Your Money, New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold, 1977, 12.
- Thomas McGuire, The Tooth Trip, New York: Random House, 1972, 2.
- Denholz, 12.
- J.H. Shaw, Fluoridation as a Public Health Measure, Washington, DC: AAAS, 1954. J.J. Murray, Fluorides in Caries Prevention, Bristol, England: Wright, 1976. E. Newbrun, editor, Fluorides and Dental Caries, Springfield, Il.: Thomas, second edition, 1975.
- Dennis H. Leverett, “Fluorides and the Changing Prevalence of Dental Caries,” Science, 217, July 2, 1982, 26-30.
- “How Fluoride Might Damage Your Health,” New Scientist, February 28, 1985, 20.
- Leverett, 26-30.
- “Is Fluoride an Essential Element?” Fluorides, Washington, DC: National Academy of Sciences, 1971, 66-68. Richard Maurer and Harry Day, “The Non-Essentiality of Fluorine in Nutrition,” Journal of Nutrition, 62, 1957, 561-573.
- Ellen Ruppel Shell, “The New Flap Over Fluoride,” American Health, October, 1984, 60-63.
- John Yiamouyiannis, Fluoride: The Aging Factor, Delaware, Ohio: Health Action, 1983, 172.
- J.A. Albright, “The Effect of Fluoride on the Mechanical Properties of Bone,” Transactions of the Annual Meeting of the Orthopedics Research Society, 1978, 3, 98.
- D.W. Allmann and M. Benac, “Effect of Inorganic Fluoride Salts on Urine and Tissue 3’5′ Cyclic-AMP Concentration in Vivo,” Journal of Dental Research, 55 (supplement B), 1976, 523.
- Alfred Taylor and Nell Carmichael Taylor, “Effect of Sodium Fluoride on Tumor Growth,” Proceedings of the Society for Experimental Biology and Medicine, 119, 1965, 252-255.
- J.A. Yiamouyiannis and Dean Burk, “Fluoridation and Cancer: Age Dependence of Cancer Mortality Related to Artificial Fluoridation,” Fluoride, 10,3, 1977, 102-123.
- J. David Erickson, “Mortality in Selected Cities with Fluoridated and Non-Fluoridated Water Supplies,” New England Journal of Medicine, 298,30, May 18, 1978, 1112-1116.
- George L. Waldbott with A.W. Burgstahler, and H.L. McKinney, Fluoridation: The Great Dilemma, Kansas: Coronado Press, 1978.
- Quoted in Dr. Dean Edell’s Medical Journal, San Francisco Chronicle, April 29, 1987.
- Quoted in John Yiamouyiannis, Fluoride: The Aging Factor, 118.
- Patrick Stortebecker, Mercury Poisoning from Dental Amalgams, Orlando: Bio-probe, 1986.
- Joe Graedon, “Dental Dangers,” San Francisco Chronicle, January 11, 1984.
- C.W. Svare, L.C. Peterson, J.W. Reinhardt, D.B. Boyer, C.W. Frank, D.P. Gay, R.D. Cox, “The Effect of Dental Amalgams on Mercury Leveles in Expired Air,” Journal of Dental Research, 60, 1981, 1668-1671.
- J.E. Abraham, C.W. Svare, and C.W. Frank, “The Effect of Dental Amalgam Restorations on Blood Mercury Levels,” Journal of Dental Research, 63,1, January, 1984, 71-73.
- D.W. Eggleston, “Effect of Dental Amalgam and Nickel Alloys on T-lymphocytes: Preliminary Report,” Journal of Prothetic Dentistry, May, 1984, 617-623.
- “Mercury in Dental Fillings: Is There a Problem?” The Medical Letter, November, 1985.
- Charles Taft, “Injurious Effects of Amalgam Fillings,” Medical Advance, 30,6, June, 1893, 422-430.
- R. Voll, “Twenty Years of Electroacupuncture Diagnosis,” American Journal of Acupuncture, March, 1975, 15-38. R. Voll, “Electoacupucnture (EAV) Diagnostics and Treatment Results in Odontogenous Focal Events,” American Journal of Acupuncture, 9,4, December, 1981, 293-302.
- Henri Albertini, William Goldberg, Bernard Sanguy, and Claude Toulza, “Homeopathic Treatment of Dental Neuralgia Using Arnica and Hypericum: A Summary of 60 Observations,” Journal of the American Institute of Homeopathy, 78,3, September, 1985, 126- 128.
- Denholz. Irwin Smigel, Dental Health, Dental Beauty, New York: M. Evans and Co., 1979.
- Denholz, 42.
- Smigel, 236.
-Richard D. Fischer, “Dentistry and Homeopathy: An Overview,” Journal of the American Institute of Homeopathy, 78,4, December, 1985, 140-147.
-Colin B. Lessell, The Dental Prescriber, London: British Homoeopathic Association.
-F. Steinlechner, “Homeopathy in Dentistry,” British Homoeopathic Journal, 73,3, July, 1984, 145-149.
-Sam Ziff, The Toxic Time Bomb: Can the Mercury in Your Dental Fillings Poison You? New York: Aurora, 1984.